From Wikipedia: Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG. Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides that are chemically similar to nicotine, which has been used as a pesticide since the late 1700s. Clothianidin and other neonicotinoids act on the central nervous system of insects as an agonist of nAChR, the same receptor as acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that stimulates and activating post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors but not inhibiting AChE. Clothianidin and other neonicotinoids were developed to last longer than nicotine, which is more toxic and which breaks down too quickly in the environment. However, studies published in 2012 show that neonicotinoid dust released at planting time may persist in nearby fields for several years and be taken up into non-target plants, which are then foraged by bees, caterpillars, and other insects.Clothianidin is an alternative to organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. It poses lower risks to mammals, including humans, when compared to organophosphates and carbamates. It has helped prevent insect pests from building up resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), clothianidin's major risk concern is to nontarget insects (especially honey bees). Information from standard tests and field studies, as well as incident reports involving other neonicotinoid insecticides (e.g., imidacloprid) suggest the potential for long term toxic risk to honey bees and other beneficial insects. In January 2013, the European Food Safety Authority stated that neonicotinoids including clothianidin pose an unacceptably high risk to bees, concluding, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment uses in maize, oilseed rape and cereals. A high acute risk was also identified from exposure via residues in nectar and/or pollen." Clothianidin is banned for all outdoor uses in the European Union.
This list contains 39 pesticides. The list is valid as of January 2018. Pesticides that may only be used under very specific conditions, for example…GCP YellowRainforest Exception, Rainforest prohibited PesticidesSAN HHP: phase-out, SAN Exception
The SAN List of Highly Hazardous Pesticides consists of 230 pesticides: SAN HHP Pesticides are classified as Highly Hazardous Pesticides according to…, Within its 2018 Sustainable Agriculture Framework and related projects, SAN promotes the elimination or phase-out of SAN HHPs without any general…UEBT Prohibited
The use of Prohibited Agrochemicals is prohibited for certified, prioritised and verified ingredients, because they are considered Highly Hazardous…UTZ Watchlist
UTZ Watchlist is composed of active ingredients that are not banned but that have a potentially severe and/or cumulative risk for human health and/or…
Use: Insecticide, Metabolite
Example applications: Corn;OSR;Rice;Orchards - apples, apricots, peach, pear, nectarines etc.;Potatoes;Ornamentals;Kohlrabi;Cabbage
Example pests controlled: Corn rootworm, Southern corn billbug, Chinch flea beetle, Corn leaf aphid, Cutworms;Seedcorn maggots;Stinkbugs;Thrips;Wireworms;Flea beetles
Mode of action: Translaminar and root systemic activity. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulator.
US EPA: 44309
GHS safety labels
About Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
From Wikipedia: The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazardous material transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat. Although adoption has taken time, as of 2017, the system has been enacted to significant extents in most major countries of the world. This includes the European Union, which has implemented the United Nations' GHS into EU law as the CLP Regulation, and United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.
Harmful if swallowed
Class: Acute Toxicity
Very toxic to aquatic life
Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects