The SAN List of Pesticides for Use with Risk Mitigation is a product of U.S.A. public funding and the intellectual property of the analysis process for this list resides within Oregon State University.
The 2018 SAN List of Pesticides for Use with Risk Mitigation specifies risk associated with, and requirements to mitigate the risks of 170 pesticides to human workers/bystanders, aquatic life, wildlife and pollinators.
The analysis of these 170 substances is based on the Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center’s state-of-the-science risk assessment tool ipmPRiME and a risk model that identifies moderate to high (10% or greater) risk:
Risk to aquatic life subject to mitigation:
Pesticides qualified for this risk category if one or more ipmPRiME aquatic risk models (aquatic algae, aquatic invertebrates, or fish chronic risk) exhibited high risk at a typical application rate.
Risk to wildlife subject to mitigation:
Pesticides qualified for this risk category if one or more ipmPRiME terrestrial risk models (avian reproductive, avian acute, or small mammal risk) exhibited high risk at a typical application rate.
Risk to pollinators subject to mitigation:
Pesticides were selected based on a widely-used hazard quotient (HQ) resulting of pesticide application rate (AR) in g a.i./ha, and contact LD50 for the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Values of HQ<50 have been validated as low risk in the European Union, and monitoring indicates that products with an HQ>2,500 are associated with a high risk of hive loss. The HQ value used by SAN is >350, corresponding to a 15% risk of hive loss. The quotient includes a correction for systemic pesticides, where risks to bees are amplified.
Inhalation risk subject to mitigation:
Inhalation risk to bystanders was calculated using the ipmPRiME model for inhalation toxicity (Jepson et al., 2014) calculated on the basis of child exposure and susceptibility. This index is protective for workers who may enter fields during or after application, and also bystanders.
 Jepson, P.C., Guzy, M., Blaustein, K., Sow, M., Sarr, M., Mineau, P., Kegley, S. (2014) Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0491