IPM Coalition

integrated pest management


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Sustainable Agriculture Network http://www.sustainableagriculture.eco/

SAN Mission

To be a global network transforming agriculture into a sustainable activity.

SAN Vision

Our vision of the world is one where agricultural activity contributes to biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihoods. To make it happen, we work directly with farmers, companies, donors and other organizations to accelerate and deepen the positive impact we can make as partners on a journey of change.

With experience in over 40 countries and with more than 100 crops, SAN provides innovative, practical and credible agricultural solutions to some of the most pressing environmental and social problems of our time.

The challenges our planet faces are huge and growing fast; from climate change and biodiversity destruction to child labor and workers’ rights, our world is at risk in many ways. At SAN we see clear opportunities to transform agriculture, from the farms themselves, up and through the associated agricultural value chains; we are an accelerator of the positive change that is needed.

SAN is an international network of NGOs focused on helping companies, producers and donors to move forward with their sustainability agenda in a practical and efficient way. We can be a powerful and effective ally to achieve and monitor goals, to transform agricultural practices and to create value on the ground.


SAN Farms for the Future Program

In a world where climate change, poverty, child labor, deforestation, pesticide overuse, nutrition and soil and water conservation are key issues, sustainable agriculture represents the main opportunity to generate change on the ground and deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals.

At the Sustainable Agriculture Network, we are committed to use our global and local experience to provide the best tools for farmers and brands to transform agriculture into a positive activity for the environment and the people.

Farms for the Future is a program designed to deliver positive impact on the ground by supporting farmers to achieve specific sustainability goals and by providing transparency regarding their performance

The program is coordinated by SAN and implemented through our network of local partners and technicians. Its aim is to work with farmers and buyers through a continuous improvement approach, providing support to tackle the key challenges faced by agriculture and livestock producers worldwide, and transparency on progress and outcomes.

Sustainability approaches need to be adapted to each context, as different supply chains and regions have different priorities, and also must take advantage of the technology to enhance transparency and accelerate change. That’s why Farms for the Future is underpinned by our Sustainable Agriculture Framework (SAN-SAF) and supported by our unique technological platform, the SAN Intelligence Hub (iHub).

Adding value to farmers and buyers

Our program is an effective way to deliver on specific sustainability goals by providing a customized tool that integrates verification, capacity development, impact monitoring, data management and local implementation to improve sustainability performance and demonstrate impact. It also allows brands to make reliable claims supported by data on what is going on at farm level

SAN Exception

Within its 2018 Sustainable Agriculture Framework and related projects, SAN promotes the elimination or phase-out of SAN HHPs without any general exceptions. Depending on local crop production reality, an action plan can be designed with more detailed mitigation requirements.

SAN Prohibited Pesticides

The SAN List of Highly Hazardous Pesticides consists of 230 pesticides:

SAN HHP Pesticides are classified as Highly Hazardous Pesticides according to the definition of the FAO/WHO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Management (JMPM) consisting of more than 200 active ingredients. The JMPM, in their 2nd session in October 2008, recommended that highly hazardous pesticides should be defined as having one or more of the following characteristics:

a)      Pesticide formulations that meet the criteria of classes Ia (extremely hazardous) or Ib (highly hazardous) of the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard;

b)      Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of carcinogenicity Categories 1A and 1B of the GHS;

c)       Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of mutagenicity Categories 1A and 1B of the GHS;

d)      Pesticide active ingredients and their formulations that meet the criteria of reproductive toxicity Categories 1A and 1B of the GHS;

e)      Pesticide active ingredients listed by the Stockholm Convention in its Annexes A and B, and those meeting all the criteria in paragraph 1 of Annex D of the Convention;

f)        Pesticide active ingredients and formulations listed by the Rotterdam Convention in its Annex III;

g)       Pesticides listed under the Montreal Protocol;

Pesticide active ingredients and formulations that have shown a high incidence of severe or irreversible adverse effects on human health or the environment: SAN has interpreted this WHO/FAO parameter with the reclassification of paraquat dichloride, as scientific evidence has revealed that this substance poses severe risks to human health. Atrazine has also been included in this list because of scientific evidence of water contamination. Additionally, the three neonicotinoids clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and the phenylpyrazole fipronil have been incorporated in the SAN HHP List, because they significantly affect bee populations, other pollinators and birds, can persist for years in soils, and can leach into waterways and groundwater, where they have depleted insect abundance and diversity. SAN also included the three active ingredients aluminum phosphide, magnesium phosphide and phosphine in the list, as their use as a fumigant to control rodent populations in storage facilities can lead to death by inhalation.

SAN Risk Mitigation

The SAN List of Pesticides for Use with Risk Mitigation is a product of U.S.A. public funding and the intellectual property of the analysis process for this list resides within Oregon State University.

The 2018 SAN List of Pesticides for Use with Risk Mitigation specifies risk associated with, and requirements to mitigate the risks of 170 pesticides to human workers/bystanders, aquatic life, wildlife and pollinators.

The analysis of these 170 substances is based on the Oregon State University Integrated Plant Protection Center’s state-of-the-science risk assessment tool ipmPRiME and a risk model that identifies moderate to high (10% or greater) risk:

  1. Risk to aquatic life subject to mitigation:

Pesticides qualified for this risk category if one or more ipmPRiME aquatic risk models (aquatic algae, aquatic invertebrates, or fish chronic risk) exhibited high risk at a typical application rate.

  1. Risk to wildlife subject to mitigation:

Pesticides qualified for this risk category if one or more ipmPRiME terrestrial risk models (avian reproductive, avian acute, or small mammal risk) exhibited high risk at a typical application rate.

  1. Risk to pollinators subject to mitigation:

Pesticides were selected based on a widely-used hazard quotient (HQ) resulting of pesticide application rate (AR) in g a.i./ha, and contact LD50 for the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Values of HQ<50 have been validated as low risk in the European Union, and monitoring indicates that products with an HQ>2,500 are associated with a high risk of hive loss. The HQ value used by SAN is >350, corresponding to a 15% risk of hive loss. The quotient includes a correction for systemic pesticides, where risks to bees are amplified.

  1. Inhalation risk subject to mitigation:

Inhalation risk to bystanders was calculated using the ipmPRiME model for inhalation toxicity (Jepson et al., 2014[1]) calculated on the basis of child exposure and susceptibility. This index is protective for workers who may enter fields during or after application, and also bystanders.

[1] Jepson, P.C., Guzy, M., Blaustein, K., Sow, M., Sarr, M., Mineau, P., Kegley, S. (2014) Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0491

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